(Answer Any TWO From This Section)

[Pick Any FIVE]
(i) Freedom of the press: The radio, newspaper and television should be free to write and Express issues without any hindrance.

(ii) Political parties: Where democracy is operational, there are more than one political party with different individuals competing for power.

(iii) Political liberty: it is an indispensable factor, the equal rights of all normal adults to vote and to stand as candidates for election, periodic elections and equal eligibility for political offices etc.

(iv) Value of individual personality: In democracy, the belief in the value of individual personality is restored. It implies the need to respect the other man,to listen to his arguments and to take account his point of view

(v) Free association and group: People should be able yo choose their own candidates or support political parties without being intimidated. Citizens can form parties and canvass for support for their programmes.

(vi) Provision of opportunities: Democracy provides opportunities for an individual to develop his or her personality. It provides access to knowledge and free education, securing against unemployment, fair working conditions, leisure etc.

(vii) Supremacy of the constitution/Rule of law: The constitution should be supreme and above every other consideration in any political system. There should be the application of the rule of law and no one should be above the law

(viii) Independence of the judiciary/fundamental human right: The judiciary should be free and independent of other branches of government eg executive and the legislature. The rights of individual should be promoted and guaranteed.


[Pick Any FIVE]
(i) Press freedom: The use of mass media should be maintained.
(ii) Bureau of information: This should be established to receive, compile and disseminate information.
(iii) Freedom of speech and association: By encouraging and allowing freedom of speech and association.
(iv) Activities of pressure groups: By encouraging the activities of pressure groups and other voluntary organisations.
(v) Opinion Poll: Encouraging the use of opinion polls on issues of general importance.
(vi) Existence of political parties: Will help to mould the opinion of the people.
(vii) Responsible and responsive: For eg. Social institutions such as families and religious centres should be able to demonstrate these.


[Pick Any FIVE]
(i) Approval of loans: Any loan to be taken by the local government from any financial institution, must get the approval of the state government.

(ii) Auditing: Auditors should either the state or central government to audit the finances of the local government.

(iii) Specific functions: The state House of Assembly can ask a local government to perform certain specific functions.

(iv) Amendment of laws: The National Assembly through the central government can at any time decide to amend the laws establishing local governments.

(v) Withholding of grants: The central government may withhold local government grants if implicated in financial mismanagement.

(vi) Monitoring the activities of local government: The state government can do this by ensuring that they adhere to guidelines and rules set for them.

(viii) Judicial control: The courts can declare any bye-law made null and void or unconstitutional, if such laws, are not in line with the provisions of the country’s constitution.

(ix) Public control: People are free to criticize some of the activities of local government and can come up with useful suggestions that would help in sanitizing some of these activities.


(Answer Any TWO From This Section)

[Pick Any THREE]
(i) Ogboni society: This society possessed judicial powers and was involved also in policy making. The maintenance and preservation of the cultural values of the people were also delegated to them.

(ii) The oyomesi: These are the seven hereditary kingmakers in the empire. The leader was Bashorun. They work hand-in-hand with the Alafin in the administration of the empire.

(iii) Political head: The Alafin was seen as the political head of the empire. He was chosen by the Oyo Mesi(Seven hereditary kingmakers of the empire).

(iv) The Aremo: He was the eldest son of the ruling Alafin but cannot succeed his father at his demise. He can only work or assist the father(Alafin) in the administration of the empire.

[Pick Any FOUR]
(i) The oracle: Ifa, the oracle played very significant role in deciding policies and their directions. In addition ,he made choice of persons to occupy public offices and in deciding complicated judicial case

(ii) Impeachment or dethronement: The oyomesi in collaboration with Ogboni exercise the power of impeachment of the oba. Impeachment was by death.

(iii) Calabash: These was an occultic calabash (Igba-iwa) which was used as an instrument of checking and controlling the dictatorial rule of the Oba.

(iv) Oath taking: Swearing/oath or vows (ibura) were administered on public office holders to ensure compliance or adherence to public policies ,rules and regulations.

(v) Exile /banishment: If an Oba, Kankanfo, Balogun or ESO was defeated in any war had the choice or option of going into exile or committing suicide and never to return to the empire again.


[Pick Any FIVE]
(i) It retained the British Queen as the constitutional ceremonial Head of the State.
(ii) The Supreme Court was not the court of last resort; the judicial committee of the Privy Council in Britain continued to act as the highest court of appeal for Nigeria.
(iii) The constitution was weak because members of the House of Senate were appointed by the regional government not elected. They therefore became stooges and surrogates of the regional government.
(iv) The constitution did not give adequate treatment and definition of the issue of creation of more regions in Nigeria. This over-sight created problems when an attempt was made to create a mid-Western region out of the Western region.
(v) The Constitution failed to specify the number of ministers to be appointed and, whether or not their appointment should reflect the federal character of Nigeria.
(vi) The constitution succeeded only in granting political independence to Nigeria but failed to address important political issues such as the minority problem and the political integration of the country.
(vii) A glance at the distribution of powers between the central government and the regional governments showed that the Federal Government was more powerful than the regional governments.


(i) Military and technical aid: Some farmers colonial territories especially the French territories, receives military and technical aid from their former colonial masters

(ii) Common language: Colonialism promoted the development of common languages among the colonial territories. English was developed and spoken in British territories while French developed in French territories.

(iii) Development of political parties: One of the positive impact of colonialism in British and French West Africa was the development of political parties. Many of these political parties emerged to champion the struggle for political independence.

(iv) Common wealth: This organisation was formed to bring together all former colonies under Britain and Britain itself. They cooperate among themselves in different areas of human endeavour eg sports ,scholarship programme etc.

(v) Emergency of the press: Another positive impact of colonialism was the emergence of the press,especially the print media (Newspaper). The press developed and became the mouthpiece of the people in the struggle for political independence.

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