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(1a) A state can be defined as a political organization of
people living within defined geographical boundaries, with
a centralized government having the power to make and
enforce laws that apply to all people living within its
(i)Sovereignty: This refers to the state’s supreme power
and the right to govern its people without any external
interference. It means that the state has the authority to
make laws, impose taxes, control resources and defend its
(ii)Territory: A state has a clearly defined and recognized
geographical boundary, which demarcates it from
neighboring states. This territory is the space over which
the state exercises its sovereignty and also includes land,
air and water resources.
(iii)Population: A state is made up of people who are
citizens or subjects of that state. The size, composition,
and distribution of the population are crucial factors in
defining the nature of a state.
(iv)Government: A state has a centralized government that
exercises control over its population and territory through
the use of legitimate force. The government has various
organs like the executive, legislature, and judiciary, and is
responsible for ensuring the welfare and security of its
(v)Recognition: A state is recognized by other states, which
means that it has established diplomatic relations with
them. Recognition also means that the state has a degree
of legitimacy in the international system as a political
(i)Ideology: Political parties with clear and appealing
ideologies tend to attract and retain more supporters.
(ii)Leadership: The quality and popularity of a party’s
leadership play a significant role in determining its
electoral success.
(iii)Financial Resources: Adequate financial resources,
improved fundraising strategies, and financial
accountability help political parties to compete effectively
in elections.
(iv)Media: The effective use of media and advertising
campaigns can help to shape public opinion and influence
voting patterns.
(v)Voter Turnout: The number of registered voters who
actually turn up on Election Day can impact the outcome of
elections, especially in close contests.
VICoalition Building: The ability to build alliances with other
political groups can help a political party to expand its base
of support and win elections.
(i)Lobbying: The use of direct or indirect communication
with policymakers to influence policy decisions or
(iii)Public Demonstrations: Pressure groups often organize
protests, rallies, and public demonstrations to raise public
awareness about their agenda and build support.
(iii)Litigation: Pressure groups pursue legal action to
challenge government policies or regulations that conflict
with their interests.
(iv)Boycotts: Pressure groups may organize boycotts of
products or businesses that do not support their interests
or values.
(v)Grassroots Mobilization: Pressure groups may engage
in grassroots mobilization to build a coalition of supporters
and allies who work together to achieve common goals.
(vii)Media Campaigns: Pressure groups may use media
campaigns to raise awareness about their objectives and
mobilize a larger audience in support of their cause.
(i)Merit-Based Appointments: It is essential to have a
transparent and merit-based appointment process that is
focused on the qualifications and experience of candidates
rather than their political affiliations.
(ii)Civil Service Codes of Conduct: The establishment of
codes of conduct that require civil servants to act
impartially and professionally, irrespective of political
(iii)Civil Service Commissions: The introduction of
independent civil service commissions that oversee
appointments, promotions, transfers, and dismissals of
civil servants.
(iv)Professional Training: The provision of professional
training for civil servants to enhance their skills and
knowledge in their areas of expertise, and provide
guidelines on ethics and values.
(v)Performance Evaluation: The development of a
performance evaluation system that judges performance
based on results achieved rather than political loyalty.
(vi)Protection of Civil Servants: Measures to protect civil
servants from arbitrary dismissal or victimization based on
political affiliation and to preserve their neutrality in
political affairs.
(i) Centralized Power: Military rule typically concentrates
power in the hands of a small group of military leaders or a
single military dictator. The military establishment
exercises significant authority and influence over the
government, often overshadowing or sidelining civilian
(ii) Suspension of Civil Liberties: Military rule often involves
the curtailment or suspension of civil liberties and
fundamental rights. Freedom of speech, assembly, and
association may be restricted, and censorship may be
imposed to control the flow of information and limit
dissenting voices.
(iii) Suppression of Political Opposition: Military regimes
tend to suppress or eliminate political opposition. Political
parties and opposition groups may be banned, and
dissenting voices may face persecution, imprisonment, or
even violence. Elections, if held at all, may be tightly
controlled or manipulated to maintain the military’s grip on
(iv) Authoritarian Governance: Military rule is typically
characterized by authoritarian governance, where decision-
making authority lies with a small group of military leaders.
Civilian institutions may be weakened or dismantled, and
the military often plays a dominant role in policymaking,
law enforcement, and administration.
(v) Martial Law and Emergency Powers: Military rule
frequently involves the imposition of martial law or
emergency powers, granting the military extensive control
and authority over civilian life. These powers may include
the suspension of constitutional rights, imposition of
curfews, and increased surveillance to maintain order and
suppress dissent.
(vi) Focus on National Security: Military regimes often
prioritize national security concerns and defense matters
above other social and economic issues. Policies and
resources are directed towards maintaining and expanding
military capabilities, often at the expense of social welfare
programs or development initiatives.
(i) Political Instability: The Action Group crises led to a
period of political instability in Nigeria. The conflict within
the party resulted in factionalism and infighting, weakening
the overall political structure. The government was unable
to effectively address pressing issues and provide stable
governance, creating a sense of uncertainty and distrust
among the population.
(ii) Regional Divisions: The crises exacerbated regional
divisions within Nigeria. The Action Group had strong
support in the Western region, and the internal conflicts
intensified the divide between the Western region and other
regions of the country. This further heightened ethnic and
regional tensions, making it challenging to foster national
unity and cooperation.
(iii) Decline of the Action Group: The crises significantly
weakened the Action Group as a political force. The party
splintered into factions, leading to a loss of public
confidence and electoral support. The internal power
struggles and divisions within the party contributed to its
decline and eventual marginalization in Nigerian politics.
(iv) Rise of Military Intervention: The crises created a
power vacuum and a perception of political instability. This
provided an opportunity for the military to intervene in the
political affairs of Nigeria. The subsequent military coups
in 1966 and the subsequent military rule that followed were
influenced, in part, by the fragility of the political system
resulting from the Action Group crises.
(v) Erosion of Democratic Processes: The Action Group
crises highlighted the fragility of Nigeria’s democratic
processes. The breakdown of trust and the use of violence
within the party undermined the principles of democracy,
such as fair elections and peaceful transitions of power.
This erosion of democratic values had long-lasting
implications for Nigeria’s governance and political system.
(vi) Socioeconomic Impact: The political instability caused
by the Action Group crises had adverse effects on Nigeria’s
socioeconomic development. The government’s focus
shifted away from addressing critical issues such as
infrastructure development, education, and poverty
reduction. The lack of effective governance hindered
progress and impeded the country’s overall development
(i) National Security: Ensuring national security is a primary
concern for any country, and it significantly influences
foreign policy decisions. Nigeria faces security challenges
such as terrorism, insurgency, and cross-border conflicts.
These security concerns drive Nigeria’s foreign policy
objectives, including cooperation with regional and
international partners, intelligence sharing, and efforts to
combat terrorism.
(ii) Economic Interests: Economic considerations play a
crucial role in shaping Nigeria’s foreign policy. Nigeria is
an oil-rich nation, and its economy heavily relies on oil
exports. Therefore, maintaining favorable economic
relations with other countries, attracting foreign
investments, securing access to international markets, and
diversifying its economy are key foreign policy objectives
for Nigeria.
(iii) Regional Leadership: As the most populous country in
Africa and a regional power, Nigeria seeks to exert
leadership and influence within the African continent.
Nigeria plays an active role in regional organizations like
the African Union (AU), Economic Community of West
African States (ECOWAS), and the Gulf of Guinea
Commission. Nigeria’s foreign policy aims to promote
stability, peacekeeping efforts, conflict resolution, and
economic integration within Africa.
(iv) Political Stability: Nigeria’s foreign policy is influenced
by the need to maintain political stability both domestically
and in its neighboring countries. Internal political stability
allows Nigeria to project a positive image internationally
and enhances its ability to engage in diplomacy, trade, and
cooperation with other nations.
(v) Historical Factors: Historical experiences and
relationships also shape Nigeria’s foreign policy. Nigeria
was a former British colony and gained independence in

  1. Its history of colonization and struggles for
    independence have influenced its worldview and foreign
    policy objectives. Nigeria maintains close ties with other
    Commonwealth countries, particularly those in Africa, and
    seeks to promote African solidarity and decolonization.
    (vi) Global Alliances and Multilateralism: Nigeria actively
    participates in international organizations such as the
    United Nations (UN) and strives to maintain positive
    relationships with major global powers. Nigeria’s foreign
    policy seeks to leverage its position within these
    organizations and forge alliances to advance its national
    interests, promote peace and security, and address global
    challenges such as climate change, human rights, and
    sustainable development.
    Federalism is a system of government in which power is
    divided and shared between a central authority and
    constituent political units, such as states or provinces. It
    establishes a dual sovereignty structure, where the central
    government and the regional governments each have their
    respective powers and responsibilities. Federalism allows
    for a distribution of power that aims to balance the
    interests of both the central government and the regional
    (i) Representation and Participation: Creating new states
    within a federation allows for a more inclusive and
    representative political system. It ensures that diverse
    regions or communities have a voice and can actively
    participate in decision-making processes at both the
    regional and national levels. State creation can help
    address regional imbalances and promote a sense of
    belonging and identity among different groups within a
    (ii) Decentralization of Power: By creating new states,
    power is decentralized and shared among multiple regional
    entities. This can prevent the concentration of power in a
    single central authority and promote local governance.
    Decentralization allows for more effective and responsive
    administration, as regional governments can address local
    issues and priorities more directly.
    (iii) Regional Development and Resource Allocation: State
    creation can be motivated by the need to promote
    balanced regional development and ensure equitable
    distribution of resources. It allows for specific regions to
    have greater control over their own resources and
    development plans. This can lead to focused development
    initiatives, tailored to the specific needs and priorities of
    each region, thus reducing regional disparities.
    (iv) Cultural and Linguistic Autonomy: Creating states
    within a federation can provide protection and autonomy
    for distinct cultural, linguistic, or ethnic communities. It
    allows for the preservation and promotion of local
    languages, customs, traditions, and identities. State
    creation can empower communities to safeguard their
    cultural heritage and exercise their right to self-
    determination within the framework of a larger federal
    (v) Conflict Resolution and Peaceful Coexistence: In some
    cases, state creation can be a means to resolve long-
    standing conflicts or ethnic tensions within a country. By
    granting greater autonomy and self-governance to specific
    regions, it may help accommodate the aspirations of
    different communities and foster peaceful coexistence.
    State creation can serve as a mechanism for managing
    diversity and promoting stability within a federation.
    (i) Emir/Sarki: The Emir or Sarki was the supreme
    executive authority in the Hausa Fulani administration.
    Their duties included maintaining law and order, overseeing
    the administration, and making decisions on political,
    economic, and social matters. They had the power to
    enforce policies and resolve disputes within their
    (ii) Waziri: The Waziri served as the prime minister or chief
    advisor to the Emir/Sarki. They were responsible for
    providing counsel, guidance, and recommendations on
    governance matters. The Waziri played a crucial role in the
    decision-making process and assisted in implementing
    policies and managing the administrative affairs of the
    (iii) Madawaki: The Madawaki was a high-ranking officer
    responsible for coordinating the military forces of the
    kingdom. Their duties included organizing and leading the
    army during times of war or conflict. The Madawaki
    worked closely with the Emir/Sarki to ensure the security
    and defense of the kingdom.
    (iv) Dan Iyan: The Dan Iyan was the chief courtier or
    chamberlain in the Hausa Fulani administration. They acted
    as the personal attendant to the Emir/Sarki and managed
    the affairs of the royal court. Their duties included
    organizing court proceedings, maintaining protocol, and
    ensuring the smooth functioning of the Emir’s household.
    (v) Galadima: The Galadima was an important
    administrative officer responsible for overseeing the affairs
    of the province or district within the kingdom. Their duties
    included collecting taxes, maintaining public infrastructure,
    settling disputes, and implementing the policies and
    directives of the Emir/Sarki at the local level.
    (vi) Dogari: The Dogari was in charge of the treasury and
    finance of the kingdom. They managed the collection of
    taxes, controlled the kingdom’s resources, and ensured
    proper accounting and financial management. The Dogari
    played a crucial role in maintaining the economic stability
    and prosperity of the kingdom.
    (1a) Define a state
    (1b) Explain five attributes of a state
    (2) Explain six factors that can determine the electoral
    success of a political party
    (3) Give and explain six techniques employed by pressure
    groups to achieve their goals
    (4) Suggest six measures that can be put in place to make
    civil service non-partisan
    (5) Elucidate six characters of military rule
    (6) Evaluate six consequences of the action group crisis of
    (7) State and discuss six factors that influence Nigerian
    foreign policy
    (8) In six ways, justify the existence of Nigeria as a
    member of the common wealth of nation
    (9a) Define federation
    (9bi) Advance five importance of state creation in a
    (10) Mention and explain six duties performed by the
    executive officers of hausa/fulani pre-colonial

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