Carving is the act of using tools to shape something from a material by scraping away portions of that material. The technique can be applied to any material that is solid enough to hold a form even when pieces have been removed from it, and yet soft enough for portions to be scraped away with available tools.

[Choose any FIVE]
(i) Carving Knives
(ii) Wood Carving Mallet
(iii) Chisels
(iv) Gouges.
(v) Veiners.
(vi) V-Tools.
(vii) Bench Knives.

(i) Make a drawing or plan.
(ii) Find a piece of wood suits what you want to carve.
(iii) Transfer your drawing to the wood.
(iv) Rough out for grounding.
(v) Modeling.
(vi) Detailing.
(vii) Finishing.


Leather-hard refers to clay that is dry enough but still damp enough to be joined to other pieces or carved without distortion. Clay at this state resembles leather. It is hard to bend and soft enough to be carved.

Sgraffito is a technique used in painting, pottery, and glass, which consists of putting down a preliminary surface, covering it with another, and then scratching the superficial layer in such a way that the pattern or shape that emerges is of the lower colour.

Greenware is the term given to clay objects when they have been shaped but have not yet been bisque fired, which converts them from clay to ceramic.

A slip is a clay slurry used to produce pottery and other ceramic wares. It is used either for joining leather-hard clay body together by slipcasting with mould, glazing.

Grog is clay which has been fired then ground up. It comes in many particle sizes, from fine to coarse. It is used to reduce shrinkage in clay bodies.


Court art is defined as the art form that illustrates the elegant customs of a royal court.

(i) Brass
(ii) Ivory
(iii) Coral
(iv) bronze
(v) ornaments

(i) Triadic symmetry
(ii) Frontality
(iii) Alternation
(iv) Decoration in the round


Cire perdue is the sculptural process of metal casting that may be used for hollow and solid casting.

The German anthropologist Leo Frobenius

(i) Model making
(ii) Mould making
(iii) Removal of wax
(iv) Chasing
(v) Spruing

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